Mining Interests in Asia Minor 1920-1921 [PDF]
By Stavros Stavridis

This brief article lists four US Department of State documents showing the importance of the Arghana copper mine in Asia Minor. 1 Other mining areas mentioned were Tireboli on the BlackSea, Fatza and Ordou. These documents highlight French interests seeking economicconcessions in their sphere of influence in South East Anatolia. Read full article.

Book Review for The Greek-Turkish War of 1919-23: An Australian Press Perspective by Stavros Stavridis

This book describes different facets of the Greek-Turkish conflict through the eyes of two Melbourne newspapers: The Age and Argus. Australian forces had played a major part in the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East in the 1914-18 War. Although Australia had no direct involvement in the actual conflict between the Greeks and Turks from 1919-1923, the Colonial Office did provide the Australian government with some information on the events unfolding in Asia Minor. Throughout the period, Australia was trying to chart an ‘independent’ foreign policy within the framework of the British Empire.
Australian Prime Minister W. M. Hughes wanted the Dominions to have some input into the foreign policy formulation of the British Empire. The Chanak crisis of September 1922 nearly brought Australia into direct conflict with the Kemalists following the defeat of the Greek army. Read more.

Gillespie mission to Angora
by Stavros T. Stavridis

While the major European powers- France, Great Britain and Italy and their nationals sought economic concessions in Anatolia, the activities of the United States could not be overlooked in the period 1921-22.

Julian E.Gillespie, US Assistant Trade Commissioner in Constantinople, visited Angora to investigate the opportunities for American commerce and trade in the Near East. British High Commissioner in Constantinople, Sir Horace Rumbold considered the Gillespie mission important enough to inform his superiors in London. Read full story.

Footsteps of Odysseus in India
by Stavros T. Stavridis

This article examines a news story that was published in two English newspapers, The Times and Morning Chronicle with the identical title ‘Subscription for the Greeks in India’ on August 27, 1824. The small Greek community and British philhellenes in Calcutta contributed financially towards the Greek War of Independence. At this time the British East India Company governed large tracts of the Indian sub-continent. An overview of the migration and settlement of Greeks in India and an analysis of the news story will be provided. Read full story.

Russo-Turkish Conflict to the Berlin Congress 1877-78: Australian Colonial Reaction
by Stavros T. Stavridis and Vahe G. Kateb

The Australian colonists followed the Near East crisis with keen interest. As part of the British Empire they depended on the Royal Navy for their protection and security from real or imagined enemies like France and Russia. The possibility of war existed between Great Britain and Russia during the 1870’s -1880’s which was something that would have concerned the Australian colonies from a security point of view. There is no doubt that if an Anglo-Russian had conflict occurred, Australian colonials would have volunteered to fight in the British Imperial Army; Australians volunteered during the Khartoum crisis in 1885. Charles Henry Pearson and Charles Snodgrass Ryan were two Australians who had an indirect and direct interest in the Russo-Turkish war. Read more.

Constantinople Massacre August 26-27, 1896: Australian Church Reaction
by Stavros T. Stavridis and Vahe G. Kateb

This short article outlines the seizure of the Imperial Ottoman Bank by the Armenian Dashnaktsutiun (or Dashnaks) in August 1896 to draw the attention of the Great European powers of the failure of Sultan Abdul II to implement administrative reforms in the Eastern Vilayets of the Ottoman Empire. The slaughter of Armenians that followed in Constantinople was discussed by the Presbyterian Church in Colonial Victoria (Australia). As it will be seen, the actions of the Dashnaks and massacre that followed in Constantinople certainly drew the attention and ire of the Church. Read more.

Ottoman Subjects Interned as POWs in Australia in 1914-1918

This brief article indicates that Turkish subjects landing in early January 1915 were interned as POWS at Langwarrin. Australia was at war with the central powers (Germany, Austro-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria) during the period 1914-18. Includes supporting documents. Read more.

Y.T. Kanna: A Man on a Mission. Assyrian Migration to Australia

Youaw Toma Kanna exchanges correspondence with senior officials of the Australian Department of Immigration in the 1960's. The documents convey the impression of man on a mission determined to assist his fellow Assyrians in Iraq, acting as an "intermediary" for Assyrians who wanted to migrate to Australia. Two documents show Kanna's support for Assyrian migration and his attempts to convince Australian officials that his people would have something positive to offer Australia. Read more.

Victoria Parliament of Australia Raises the Genocide of the Greeks

The Parliament of Victoria in Australia raised the issue of the Genocide of the Pontic Greeks. Senator Jenny Mikakos was the first to raise this issue in the Parliament ever on the occasion of 87 anniversary of the genocide and due to the relevant events that will be held in Australia in order to commemorate this fact. J. Mikakou wished to honor the memory of the 353,000 Pontic Greeks who were eliminated between 1916 and 1923 where Turkey is today”. “Before them”, Ms Mikakou reported, “1, 5 million Armenians and 750,000 Assyrians were eliminated in various parts of Turkey”. Read more.

Remembering Chrysostomos: A Modern Day Martyr

Archbishop Chrysostomos was an admired and revered figure among the Greeks of Smyrna. He strongly believed in the ideals of Hellenism until his tragic death in September 1922. After the seizure of Smyrna (governed by a Greek administration appointed by the Allied Powers following Turkey's defeat in World War I as an ally of Germany) by Turkish troops, Nurredin Pasha turned this cleric over to an angry mob. The archbishop was barbarically beaten, mutilated and killed. The American Consul at Smyrna, George Horton, wrote of this Orthodox Christian hierarch after his tragic death: "I have known Monsigneur Chrysostomos for years. He was an active and enthusiastic exponent of Greek ambitions and ideals which it seems to me was quite natural in him as a Greek." Horton paid the ultimate tribute to Chrysostomos by stating that the Greeks should "set him down in their history as a hero and martyr." Read more.

The Imperial Conference of 1921: The Australian Position

Britain's relations with its Dominions in post 1919 period had changed due to the important contribution of the latter to the empire in the 1914-18 war. The Dominions wanted to be involved in the formulation of Imperial foreign and defence policy and consulted on matters which affected their vital interests. Lloyd George's opening address on June 20, 1921 outlined some of the important issues: the reparations issue; maintaining Japanese friendship by renewing the Anglo-Japanese Treaty; making peace with Turkey; and the enforcement of the peace treaties. Read more.

Casey-Bruce Correspondence: Balkan and Near East Affairs

Prime Minister Stanley M.Bruce appointed Richard Gardiner Casey as Australian political liaison officer to London in late 1923. Casey had direct access to secret British documents and also held conversations with officials of the British Foreign and Colonial offices. Over the next 5 years Casey was to provide Bruce in the form of secret cables and private letters information on British foreign policy covering a multitude of issues. Read more.

Cyprus in March 1956: Australian Documents

Two interesting documents exist in the Greek-Australian archives on the Cyprus issue in 1956. These provide an insight of how Australian officials viewed Cyprus at this particular moment in time. They are best understood within the context of EOKA's (National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) struggle for independence from British Colonial rule, the deportation of Archbishop Makarios in March 1956, strained Greek-Turkish relations over Cyprus and wider Middle East strategic considerations. Read more.

An American Diplomat in Athens, 1921: Dr. Edward Capps

On his return to the United States Dr Edward Capps, the former US Minister in Athens, held an interesting conversation with the Undersecretary of State in Washington DC on June 16, 1921. He was in a good position to provide his government with a first hand account of developments in Greek politics and that the Greek Prime Minister was interested in improving relations with the United States. Capps raises some interesting points in his conversation. Read more.

Barton Hall: An American Diplomat at Athens in 1922, Part One

Barton Hall, the US Charge d’Affaires in Athens, who replaced Dr Edward Capps wrote an interesting report to the Secretary of State in Washington DC on August 10, 1921. He describes the military situation in Asia Minor, Venizelism, economic and social conditions in Greece, the plight of naturalised Americans of Greek origin and the major Greek political figures. The report paints a picture of uncertainty and disquiet in Greek affairs. Read more.

Barton Hall: An American Diplomat at Athens in 1922, Part Two

Barton Hall sent a dispatch to the US State Department on October 13, 1921 reporting on the changed political conditions in Greece that was mainly due to the military setback in Asia Minor. King Constantine’s position was irreparably harmed further undermining his authority in Greece. In the long run, however, this would prove fatal to his throne and Cabinet Ministers.Read more.

American Philhellenes: Smyrna 1922

Breck Trowbridge, the President of the Society of American Philhellenes, wrote an interesting letter on behalf of his organisation to Charles E.Hughes, the US Secretary of State on April 24, 1922 urging the recognition of Constantine’s regime and to further develop US trade with Greece and the Near East. Read article.

U.S. Diplomatic Personnel Submit Partial List of Persons Safe and Evacuated after Smyrna Catastrophe

Researcher Stavridis uncovered these short cablegrams while investigating archival materials. Although very brief--only containg a couple of dozen names in all--the list does include a few Hellenic names. Persons of Greek descent and researching Smyrniot or Mikrasiatiki roots may wish to review the list.
Click here to see list.

Liman Von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal and Asia Minor

Stavridis cites and comments upon a Los Angeles Times article from September 1922 in which German General Liman Von Sanders praises the advances of the Turks. Click here to read more.

Asia Minor: A Tempting Wealth of Natural Resources

The U.S. Department of Commerce issued a report in 1920 on the natural resources of Anatolia, based principally on information gathered by German scientists in 1917. Click here to read brief article.

Smyrna and Southern California

According to the Los Angeles Times, a Near East Relief Committee was established in mid-September 1922 in California to aid the refugees from Asia Minor. Click here to read brief article.

Australia and Ataturk

Stanley M.Bruce, the Australian High Commissioner in London, notified Canberra on November 10, 1938 of the death of Mustapha Kemal Ataturk. He was the first Dominion or British leader to visit the new Turkish Republic of Mustapha Kemal. Read entire article and view scan of original document.

Turkey and the Kurds

During December 1941, the British Government notified the Australian Prime Minister of Turkey’s concern in the establishment of an independent Kurdish state. Turkey remained neutral during the course of the Second World War. Read entire article and view scan of original document.

A Concerned Diplomat: 1922

Two documents from the US Department of State collections show the concern of Hector ME Pasmezoglu, the Greek Consul in St Louis, during the time of the Lausanne Conference when the Turks were threatening to expel the Greek Patriarch from Constantinople. Pasmezoglu sent a telegram to Washington hoping that Senator Selden P. Spencer would protest in the US Senate regarding the future of the Patriarchate. Spencer passed this telegram onto Secretary of State Charles E.Hughes.
Click here to read entire article and view documents.

Polyzoides in 1922: You Are All to Blame

Adamantios Th. Polyzoides, the editor of a Greek-American newspaper, who was an ardent Royalist, defended the Greek position in Asia Minor. There is an interesting article of his titled, “Tragedy of Smyrna. As Greeks see it…He blames France chiefly,” that was published in the New York Times on September 17, 1922 expressing the Greek-American view on the Greek disaster in Asia Minor. He did not mince his words about the culpability and negligence on the part of the great European powers and the United States in failing to assist Greece in her struggle against the Kemalists.
Click here to read the entire article

Faultlines in Greek-America: 1922

This brief article is a continuation of an earlier one by Stavridis titled “ Greek American Relations: A Commentary.” It is based on a telegram sent by the Greek-American newspaper Atlantis to President Warren G. Harding urging him to forge closer relations with Royalist Greece. Two archival documents show sharp divisions existing in the Greek American community in early 1922. It is very clear that the political problems of the Old World (palia patridha) where being repeated on United States soil.
Click here for entire article.

Petros Tatanis: Concerns for the "Patrida"

Petros P. Tatanis, the publisher of the Greek American newspaper National Herald (Ethnikos Kyrix), sent an interesting telegram to US President Warren Harding on October 7, 1922 regarding the plight of the Christian population in Eastern Thrace. This telegram is best understood within the context of the Mudania conference taking place in early October 1922 between Allied Generals and Kemalists establishing armistice terms between the Greek and Turkish armies. The Mudania convention eventually paved the way for the Lausanne peace conference held in late November 1922 – February 1923 and resuming again in April – July 1923.
Click here to read article.

William Pember Reeves: A Man of Vision

On February 1, 1919 the Christian Science Monitor published an article titled “Turkish Rule Over Christian People." William Pember Reeves would put an end to this by segregating Turks in Asia Minor. This statement made by William Pember Reeves, the Chairman of the Anglo-Hellenic League in London, is best placed within the context on the eve of Eleftherios Venizelos’ presentation of the Greek territorial claims on February 3-4 at Paris Peace Conference.
Click here for the full article.

Andreades' "Mission" to America: Political Questions 1919--Part One

A correspondent of the Christian Science Monitor interviewed Professor A.Andreades in early May 1919 in New York. The interview was published in four instalments on May 2, 3, 6 and 7, respectively. The first two articles dealing with Greek diplomacy and the others discussing financial and economic matters. The information provided by Andreades is placed within the context of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.
Click here to read full article.

An Ionian University in Smyrna

Although the Greek High Commissioner Aristidis Sterghiadis was very unpopular among the local Greek Smyrniotes, his most cherished enterprise was to establish an Ionian University in Smyrna that could be seen in raising, improving and enriching the education, social and cultural aspects in the lives of all Smyrniotes. He had inviated K. Karatheodoris, the Professor of Mathematics of Gottingen University in Germany, to oversee the establishment of this institution. Plans for the university were revealed by George Horton, then U.S. Consul to Smyrna, in one of his reports to the U.S. State Department.
Click here to read more.

Dodecanese and Cyprus 1912-1946: An Overview

The Dominions Office in London notified the Australian Government on July 4, 1949 regarding Greek claims to the Dodecanese Islands and the Cyprus. As a result of the Italo-Turkish war, Italy ‘temporarily’ occupied the Dodecanese Islands under the Treaty of Ouchy signed in October 18, 1912. The Italians were to assume full sovereignty of these islands under Article 8 of the secret Treaty of London of April 26, thus joining the Entente-Britain, France and Russia- during the First World War. To read more click here.

From Smyrna to Mudania September-October 1922: Greek Reactions in U.S. and Greece

The Greek army evacuated Asia Minor in early September 1922 which resulted in a flood of Greek and Armenian refugees to Greece. Over the next 4 weeks the New York Times would keep its readers informed on the drama that was to unfold at Smyrna, Chanak and the Mudania conference that eventually paved the way for an armistice to end Greek-Turkish conflict.

The Greek-American organisations sent telegrams to U.S President Warren Harding and Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, the Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, urging the American Government to assist the refugees from Smyrna and also hoping that the US might intervene in the Near East. The US was determined to keep out of any military fracas in the Near East. It should be noted that direct appeals from Greek organisations and politicians in Athens to the American Government and public appeared in the columns of the New York Times.
Click here to read more.

American Reactions to Asia Minor Deportations in 1922

This article by noted Australian researcher Stavridis outlines how the eyewitness accounts of two American Near East Relief workers, Dr. Mark Ward and Mr. F.Yowell, concerning the deportations and massacres of Christians in Asia Minor had mobilized organizations and individuals in the United States into action. These eyewitness testimonies were published in major US newspapers. It should be noted that American organizations and individuals supported the British Government’s initiative to establish an inter-allied commission of inquiry into the atrocities committed in Asia Minor.
Click here for complete article.

British Reactions to Asia Minor Deportations in 1922

Eyewitness accounts of two American Near East Relief workers, Dr. Mark Ward and Mr. F. Yowell, concerning the deportations and massacres of Christians in Asia Minor, had mobilized organizations and individuals into action in Britain. They tried to influence the British Government to do something to assist the Christian populations in Asia Minor through the columns of the major British newspapers. However there were groups and individuals who supported and sympathized with the Turkish view.
Click here to read more.

Immigration of Asia Minor Greeks to Australia

Many Asia Minor Greeks and Armenians found it difficult to obtain suitable and long-term employment in Greece following the Asia Minor Catastrophe. For many of these unfortunate individuals, migration to Australia, Canada, United States of America, New Zealand and South Africa offered them the opportunity to commence a new life and to improve their socio- economic position. Although the Australian Government wasn’t very keen on Greek migration to Australia, influential business interests worked to facilitate worker migration. Click here for entire article.

Smyrna 1922: Spain and Mustafa Kemal

Two Department of State documents dated September 20 and October 3, 1922 sent by Cyrus E.Woods, the US Ambassador in Madrid, reported on the Spanish government’s concern that Mustapha Kemal’s victory over the Greeks at Smyrna could inspire a Moslem uprising in Spanish Morocco. Following a brief review of Moroccan history duirng the period 1904-1922, this article discusses the Chanak crisis of September 1922 that nearly brought Britain and Kemalist Turkey to the brink of war.
Click here to read more.

The Ten Demands: A Fight for Justice

When the news of the Ward/Yowell eyewitness testimony became known in Constantinople, the Pontian Greeks demanded the intervention of the United States to get the Kemalists to stop the deportations and massacres of their fellow country people who lived along the shores of the Black Sea. The Central Committee of the Greek Dioceses of Pontus demanded justice for its people
Click here for entire article

Turkish Reaction to Asia Minor Deportations in 1922

The Turkish reactions in Angora (Ankara) to Ward/Yowell eyewitness testimony was one of hostility and tried to dismiss such claims as lies and prevarications that were designed to caste Turkey in a damaging light in Europe and the United States. However Turkish opinion in Constantinople was divided due to the allied occupation of that city.
Click here to read more.

We Wamt Action: Australian Greeks Urge Motherland to Ally with Entente Powers in WWI

The Scotsman, an Edinburgh newspaper, published a Reuter’s cable from Sydney Australia on November 20, 1915 with the headline “Greeks in Australia. Message to M.Skoudoulis.” It stated that “At an enthusiastic meeting of 3000 Greeks at the [Sydney] Town Hall. It was resolved to cable the following resolution to the Premier of Greece.” It outlined that the “ Greek community of Sydney, following the agony in these critical circumstances the fortunes of the motherland, is expecting daily to see the Greek nation fighting on the side of England and her Allies for the cause of justice and freedom. Greece fighting for her Allies can crush her old enemies the Turks and the Bulgarians, and attain her national ideal.”
Click here for complete article.

Our Destiny Lies in Our History

A man of many cultures, Stavros Stavridis says the world won't resolve current conflicts without understanding past ones. Born in Egypt, he lives in Australia, has grandparents from Istanbul, speaks with a British accent, is married to a Hispanic woman from the Yakima Valley and is fluent in Greek.
"History seems to be unfashionable, but it’s important to who and what we are and where we come from. It gives us our identity," he says. An expert in the time period of 1912-23, and the pre- and post-World War effects on the Balkans and the Middle East, he advocates that all schoolchildren study early 20th-century Greek and Turkish history. “Events at that time have had influence down to today,” he explains. When world diplomats carved up the Ottoman Empire in 1923, they created a “jigsaw puzzle” of countries, according to Stavridis.
We need to learn from the history there and from the world’s mistakes, Stavridis says.
Click here to read more.

Declaration of the Northern Epirotes from the Districts of Korytsa and Kolonia Demanding Union of Their Native Province with Greece--Pan-Epirotic Union in America, Boston, 1919

This lengthy document details the arguments and reasons put forth by the Pan-Epirotic Union in the U.S. for the attachment of the provinces of Korytsa and Kolonia to Greece. It is signed by thousands of Greek-Albanians (Northern Epirotes or Voreio Epirotes) from across the U.S., listing their ancestral village and U.S. city of residence--a valuable document not only for its historical value but also for its genealogical utility.
Click here to view entire document (1.92 MB PDF--37pp)

Informational Resource

National Centre for Hellenic Studies and Research, La Trobe University, Australia
Click here for Centre's website

About the Author

Stavros Terry Stavridis was born in Cairo, Egypt in 1949 of Greek parents. He migrated to Australia with his parents in September 1952. Stavros has a Bachelor of Arts (B.A) in Political Science/Economic History and B.A (Hons) in European History from Deakin University and M.A in Greek/Australian History from RMIT University. His MA thesis is titled "The Greek-Turkish War 1919-23: an Australian Press Perspective."

Stavros has nearly 20 years of teaching experience, lecturing at University and TAFE (Technical and Further Education, the equivalent of Community College in the US) levels. He has presented papers at international conferences in Australia and USA and has also given public lectures both in Australia and on the West Coast of the US. Many of his articles have appeared in the Greek-American press. He currently works as a historical researcher at the National Center for Hellenic Studies and Research, Latrobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia.

Stavros' research interests are the Asia Minor campaign and disaster, Middle Eastern history, the Assyrian and Armenian genocides, Greece in the Balkan Wars 1912-13 and the First World War and history in general.

HCS maintains a large selection of fine pieces written by Mr. Stavridis which viewers are invited to view at the URL

Read More About the Greeks of Asia Minor

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